By Sherman Hollar
Formalizing research of the wildlife could appear like a frightening job contemplating the sheer breadth and diversity of dwelling issues that inhabit the planet. From the microscopic organisms within the worlds such a lot distant destinations to these within the human physique, facts of the elaborate constructions and mechanisms that allow existence are ubiquitous and new discoveries continuously exhibit new percentages that call for to be tested. This quantity surveys the multitude of topics that contain the sector of biology and contains an outline of the improvement of biology, microbiology, and telephone thought.
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Extra info for A Closer Look at Biology, Microbiology, and the Cell (Introduction to Biology)
In a separate procedure, they used rapid, sequential passage of cultures so that certain specimens were able to outgrow others. Thus, for the first time, stable cultures containing a single kind of microbe could be used to identify and study specific diseasecausing organisms. Another great advance in pure culture methods came in the late 19th century, when microbiologists discovered that each kind of microbe preferred a certain medium for optimal growth. Over the past century, microbiologists have made great progress in 48 The Field of Microbiology Alexander Fleming discovered that the mold Penicillium prevents the growth of bacteria.
In plants, for example, it is the sap. In animals it is the blood. The cell membrane is semipermeable— that is, some substances can pass through it but others cannot. This characteristic enables the cell to admit or block substances from the surrounding fluid and enables the cell to excrete waste products into its environment. The cell membrane is composed of two thin layers of phospholipid molecules studded with large proteins. Phospholipids are chemically related to fats and oils. Some membrane proteins are structural.
Both chemical and biological agents have been used in past wars because they are often more insidious and less easily detected than conventional weapons. This application of microbiology has been made still more ominous by the ability to alter microbes using genetic engineering. Methods of Microbiology The chief tool of the microbiologist has always been the microscope. Since its 43 A Closer Look at Biology, Microbiology, and the Cell invention there have been great refinements in the optical microscope’s power and precision.
A Closer Look at Biology, Microbiology, and the Cell (Introduction to Biology) by Sherman Hollar